Cut two of the three pieces to a point at one end as these form stakes that will be driven into the ground. Fortunately, the path from the deck of your imagination to a real one isn’t hard, because there’s nothing complicated about building a quality deck. 2-3/4-in. 6). Over time these repeated movements can cause boards to crack and split. You’ll see it happen as your deck “weathers” to a silver gray in a few years. 10 galvanized screws beneath, as shown. As with beams, joist size depends on the weight to be supported, the length the joists have to span and their wood type. The rest should be staggered. Ask another person to help lift and hold it in place.) Wear goggles to protect your eyes, a dust mask, and gloves. It is an easy part of the process. Use 3/8-in. Did you bolt your rail posts to the joists or beam? Moreover, stains come in many colors, so you can blend your deck into the color scheme of your home. Install the ledger first, especially if you have a door opening onto the deck. Cleanup and Preparation. Lay the first row perpendicular to the joists at the ledger beam (or along the side of the house) and install them with deck screws. With materials list and plan in hand, visit your favorite lumberyard to get an estimate for the cost of materials. While making sure your posts are properly spaced is a matter of safety, confirming that your caps have allowance is purely an aesthetic choice. Widen and flatten the bottoms to get a wide support base. The wood/concrete connections are good in A, C and D. Before you mix and pour the concrete, decide how you want to attach the posts to it. Once you gather your materials, it will be time to start the building process. You can buy a stair package for your raised deck at most home supply stores, or you can build your own deck stairs following tutorials. You have to clean the surface of the concrete slab. Building inspectors have found that many homeowners, designing by “rules of thumb,” make beams too small. Take your design to your local building inspector’s office. You should install the first row of decking perpendicular to the joists. from board edge. All other material should be at least 2x2 or stronger. Technically, we are still working on it, but the remaining work is all cosmetic. Figs. Now add the platform. higher so water will run off. Count every board and bolt. Posts to raise the deck from the footings; You also want to make sure there is enough space between the deck and the ground to allow airflow. The other beam, called a “ledger,” is bolted to the rim joist (or wall studs) of the house. Use 10d galvanized casing nails on the edges of the 2x4 and 2-in. Continual moisture from ground contact rusts steel and rots wood posts faster, so avoid that situation if you can. Building your own elevated deck can be accomplished in a few weekends, depending on the size and shape of your deck, as well as your skill level with DIY projects. Allow the concrete to set. Generally, steel connectors, available from lumberyards and home centers, are the strongest. Install the ledger first, and slip proper flashing to stop rot. The calculations are important for the stairs and stringers for them to be within code regulations. above the ground to drain off water. In such cases use machine bolts, because you can steady their heads with a wrench. Fungus quickly takes root in moist areas. The terrain, the deck’s location, budget, materials and project completion timeframe all factor into raised deck planning. Proper deck safety is a huge concern, especially if your deck is raised off the ground. Flare the bottom of the center footing in the row parallel to the house to 24 inches. BestLife52 is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to, or The foundation shoulders all the weight of the deck and people on it, so it should be strong. The preservative permanently bonds with the wood only when it dries. Most likely no is … Using bags of concrete you’d purchased when you were gathering your materials, you can premix the concrete using a small cement mixer (that you can rent) or mix the appropriate amount in a wheelbarrow. And it might if you put it together right. Create a level space for entertaining, eating al fresco, or just sitting out and enjoying the sunshine. As you know, decks are versatile; you can put them almost anywhere and build them almost any way you want. Are there enough of them, at least one every 6 ft.? 3). Budget factors to consider include how big you want your deck to be and the type of lumber you’ll use. 1 and 2 show five examples. 7 shows proper nailing technique and several types of decking. Don’t skimp in your rail design. Beams made from stronger wood can often be smaller. The maximum permitted opening in the guardrail varies from 4 in. This wood costs 10 to 20 percent more but often comes with a lifetime guarantee. First, the metal connector is a good one, but it won’t last long because water can easily puddle around it and rust it. C. I used two 2x8s rather than one in Fig. They’ll want to know specifics like the size, height, and type of lumber to determine if it meets safety regulations. Reinforce with wood blocks cut from the same size wood material as the joists (called blocking) between the joists to prevent the joists from twisting. Let your imagination run. No matter which option you choose, you’ll need to pour a concrete pad for the base of the stairs. But other types of fungus will destroy the wood fiber and weaken your deck’s structure. Plan for a 12-inch width for each footing and 48 inches deep to get below frost lines. Examine the foundation details in Fig. They, too, are interested in your building a high-quality, safe dock. on center (from the center of one to the center of the next. A partly or fully raised deck can be a great addition to any garden, especially if the ground is sloping or uneven. A standard single-level raised deck needs only four footings parallel to the house, but the extra footings are necessary on this deck to handle the additional weight of the roof and future remodeling project structures. Place the dowels between adjacent deck boards and fasten the boards in place. Now that you’ve laid your foundation (literally), here’s where your above-ground deck really begins to come together and resemble the deck of you’ve dreamed of. So attach the posts securely to the joists with bolts (Fig. Installing these anchors will keep the stairs steady and safe. Most cities, towns, and neighborhoods require building permits for building a deck above ground. Predrill nail holes near board ends to avoid splitting, Make these slightly smaller than the diameter of the nail passing through them. Do they feel solidly connected to the framework when you push on them? But they won‘t feel safe. Deck Board Spacer: It’s easy to space deck boards evenly. 3). Again, always confirm your joist size with your building inspector. Posts, beams, ledgers, and joists support the deck’s weight. rating), or the heartwood of redwood or cedar. To create a framework, cut the 100mm x 50mm tanalised timber to the required length, then join using exterior wood screws. You can even chat with neighbors who have built similar structures and understand some of the limitations of the particular terrain or geography within your neighborhood. Harsh weathering can crack the wood and weaken its joints. ball (soon to be 4-in. If they find enough moisture, the spores that settle on your freshly built deck will root and grow, slowly dissolving the wood fiber. So they keep it out of sight, using it for the joists, beams and posts. For example, you’ll need a 2’ x 12’ foot ledger for a 24’ x 14’ deck. Make timber profiles to help you set out the deck sub-frame accurately. Dig the holes for your posts - make sure to go beyond the frost line. How to build a raised deck. A raised deck is a great way to make the most of space that can otherwise go unused, such as slopes and uneven areas. Second, the concrete foundation widens toward the top, inviting frost to catch its sides and heave it upward. By the end you’ll be able to design, plan and construct your own deck like a pro. When your post spacing reaches about 10 ft., the beams get big and heavy, sometimes four 2x8s, three 2x10s or larger. On occasion you may need to bolt the ledger to a concrete foundation (Fig. Cut the 4x4 posts to length, fasten them to their concrete foundations, plumb them with a level and temporarily brace them in place with boards. deep groove with a corundum (not carbide) blade on your circular saw. For more protection or when the stain doesn’t contain a water repellent, apply a clear sealer (or other water repellent) first. Before you break ground and start laying the foundation for a deck you’ll enjoy for years to come, weigh the various factors involved in building your deck and how it can impact your options. Neither of these forms a skin on the wood surface that can peel. The connections in Fig. Then consider how long it will take to mix your own. Everyone knows how pleasant a deck can be, but as the builder, you get an additional reward — the pleasure of knowing you’ve made a first-class addition to your home. That’s where fungus takes root. Avoid Saturdays, when they're likely to be most busy. But having footings on the ground, and then joists, followed by your deck boards work just fine. Normally, if you need 1 cubic yard or more, it’s easier and faster to buy ready-mixed concrete, and invite (or bribe!) Then when the sun bakes them dry, the wood shrinks. According to the span table, one 2x8 does the job, though a second 2x8 was added for additional stiffness. Note: Most jurisdictions will require a building permit for the addition of a hot tub or spa on a raised deck. How to Build a Floating Deck. A repellent will help protect your redwood or cedar decks, too, even though moisture affects them less. Fungus needs moisture to grow, so rot won’t occur in any type of wood if the wood can dry out easily after rainstorms. Once your posts are straight and your landing framing has been installed, attach your decking to the joists. Copyright © 2021 Trex Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Place steel connectors - the strongest way to attach posts to concrete. When shopping for deck material, ask your local lumber dealer about this type of treated wood. 5B and 5C are okay, but will weaken sooner. You’ve completed the main structural work. Jun 11, 2014 - Build a single-level raised deck explained. It’s time to lay the decking. or o.c. They’ll tell you if you need a permit. Use string to outline the raised deck footings. Most contain a section on layout; or ask someone who understands layout principles to help you check your work. This can be tricky, especially on sloped sites. Fill the holes with a quick-drying, ready-to-use concrete to just above ground level. If your design calls for a bottom rail, make sure it is at least 2x4. Decks often fail because their beams aren‘t strong enough. 3 is strongest, along with the one shown in Fig. Depending on building codes in your jurisdiction, you may be required to get a permit to build a raised deck of a certain height. Rails that pass over the tops of the posts are strongest and easiest to fasten. Be sure to buy the proper size joist hangers and nail through all the holes with galvanized joist hanger nails (sometimes called galvanized truss nails). Ledger. You can see one of those beams in Fig. high and so that a 6-in. If you need any pointers here, please check out our detailed “How to Design & Build a Raised Garden Bed” tutorial. Penetrating sealers and stains contain resins that partially fill the wood pores and repel water. Once your beams or rim joists have been placed, add joist hangers to the inner sections. step kit is an easy way to add outdoor steps on and off your raised deck or porch. Every time water soaks them, the wood swells. If you’re going the DIY route, several free apps can help you generate blueprints to take to your building office when applying for permits. This article will explain how to build an elevated deck with common tools, on a budget, in female speak. 4). Fasten the seams with deck screws. Remember, you can always add another beam to support the joists mid-span if you need to. Notice that the bottom 6-in. Example A fails on both counts, but C and D are good. You will sense it every time you step out on your deck listen. Predrill your holes for lead lag shields or expansion bolts with a hammer drill and special carbide drilling bit to make this job easy. Check the frame is square by measuring from corner to corner. Cap the ends of the joists with a band joist (Fig. To correctly size a beam, consider these three factors: For most decks, two 2x10s nailed together will be strong enough if you support them with posts every 6 ft. Step 3. Decking How to build outdoor steps A D.I.Y. Your building inspector will tell you how deep frost extends in your area. Because they form a thinner coat than paint, sealers and stains usually last only a few years. For recoating ease, your best bet is to apply a clear penetrating sealer or an exterior stain that also seals. Your attachment should also meet code requirements for bolt-through details into a solid part of the house. UPDATE: I added a span table below referencing minimum beam sizes in the section Avoid Common Deck-Building Mistakes. You can choose from either of the two beam sizes shown there, either three 2x8s or two 2x10s nailed together. Dunk the critical ends of posts and other lumber into a bucket of wood preservative (formulated to resist fungus) for an hour or even a day to let as much preservative as possible soak into the wood. Predrill both the nail and screw holes. How far will you have to wheelbarrow the load? Note any unusual features and potential problems. The average homeowner spends $2,200 to build a 10x10 foot deck, $6,160 to build a 14x20 deck, and $8,800 to build a 20x20 deck. Cut posts using your ledger as a height reference. So don’t buy boards that seem waterlogged or unusually heavy. To solve the problem caused by wetting/drying cycles. The concrete should extend 6 in. For additional support, bolt blocks under both ends. The chemicals bond to the fiber and remain there. 2. Unfortunately, though, repainting a deck is difficult once the first coat peels, because you have to scrape and sand the wood to prepare for a new coat. Get the seams of the decking board to be centered over the joists. On this point, redwood and cedar usually have the edge on pressure-treated wood. Cut three 600mm lengths of 22mm x 100mm timber for each profile. This pad is typically 4 inches thick. From ‘Apartment Therapy‘, learn how to build a freestanding deck from repurposed pallet wood. Decking Refresh and renew your timber deck Refresh and renew timber decks, so they’re in tip-top condition for summer fun A down to one 2x8 in Fig. Calculate the volume needed, and compare the prices. Proper flashing stops rot. Beam sizes in this table are based on the strength of Ponderosa pine, a relatively weak species. Building a Raised Deck Over Concrete Patio. Sometimes referred to as an elevated deck, a raised deck is a great option for entertaining outdoors. Example B is acceptable, but will rot sooner than the others. How to Save Money by Building Your Own Deck. Terms of use, Budget - Determines Deck Size and Materials, Selecting The Best Composite Decking Color For Your Home. Fill out the details, using other decks for examples. D), especially joints where moisture sinks in and dries out slowly. Many deck builders don’t like the green color or knotty appearance of treated wood. or, even better, a .60-lb. It’s also most visible, so select your best-looking material for it. Beyond a raised deck offering an attractive outdoor space and adding value to your home, there are other considerations for building a raised deck including: the terrain, location, type of lumber available, and of course, the cost and project completion estimate. Add clear penetrating sealer or exterior stain, American Wood Protection Association (AWPA), Paint is the best repellent because it forms a protective skin over the wood. Carriage bolts look neater when the head must be visible, but at times they slip while tightening, so you can’t draw them up firmly. Fig. from region to region. Go out to your proposed deck site and with a tape measure, figure out the rough dimensions: length, width, height. (Concrete dealers limit their offload time and charge beyond that limit.). The guardrail feels firm, too, so you can lean against it confidently. So if you aren’t fully confident, look at several deck-building books. Use a level to draw a line on the siding the whole length of the deck. 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