Established populations have also been reported in Japan, Austria, France, Germany, and Italy. What does Asian and citrus longhorn beetle damage look like? What Are Their Characteristics? Asian longhorned beetle, (Anoplophora glabripennis), also spelled Asian long-horned beetle, also called starry sky beetle, species of beetle (order Coleoptera, family Cerambycidae), originally native to eastern China and Korea, that became a serious pest of hardwood trees in North America and parts of Eurasia. Report any signs or symptoms of an infestation immediately. The program’s goal was to plant a 4,506-km- (2,800-mile-) long shelterbelt of trees in the northwest regions by 2050 to prevent soil erosion, slow desertification, enhance urban beautification, and increase pulpwood production. Corrections? Antennae have contrasting black and white bands. 2. However, once they have matured into adults, their presence becomes known since adult beetles exit infested host trees by chewing holes in the tree and emerging. Adult beetles emerge by chewing their way out of trunk and branches, leaving large round holes (6-14 mm in diameter). The Asian longhorned beetle is a large black beetle with white spots and unusually long antennae. Adult beetles feed on foliage for a few weeks, female beetles then chew grooves into the bark to lay single eggs that hatch within two weeks. This beetle can infest and kill hardwood trees in more than 15 plant families. 4. Adult beetles are typically 1.7 to 3.9 cm in length with long antennae 1.3 (females) to 2.5 times body length (males). The Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), also known as the starry sky, sky beetle, or ALB, is native to eastern China, and Korea. The upper sections of the legs of the adults are whitish-blue. Adults are active from April or May through October. The beetle’s life cycle lasts one to two years. The Asian longhorned beetle . Thousands of trees were chipped and burned to prevent its spread. A recent immigrant to the United States, the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) made its presence known quickly. A feeding larva excretes sawdustlike waste, which is pushed out through the tunnel opening. Usually, identification of this pest is made by observing damage to the host trees, and then finding an adult beetle to confirm the suspected infestation. This beetle is believed to have been spread from Asia in solid wood packaging material. Molecular markers are useful for characteriz- ... Genetic analyses of the Asian longhorned beetle * … This insect pest poses a serious risk to trees and forests. Asian and citrus longhorn beetles both harm the trees they infest at all stages of their lifecycle. Areas where host trees are available, particularly where maples, elms, and ash are in abundance. All other stages of the life cycle occur within the host tree, so it's not likely you will see them. Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The newly emerged adult chews its way out of the tree. Visible Asian longhorned beetles. Beetles most often seen in late summer The natural enemies include fungi and nematodes as well as insect predators and parasitoids. The Asian long-horned beetle is a large wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia. Infestations are considered eradicated only after no new infested trees are found following four to six years of inspections. In areas beyond the eradication zone, potential host trees are regularly inspected for signs of infestation. Because the Asian longhorned beetle can inflict significant tree damage, all countries in which it has been accidentally introduced have established eradication protocols. The glossy black adults are large, 17–40 mm (0.7–1.6 inches) in length, and have 10–20 white or yellow-orange irregular spots on their smooth elytra (wing covers). Omissions? If you find a beetle, try to take a picture or capture it by placing the insect in a jar and freezing it for identification. Help us by looking at the debris from your swimming pools. The Asian longhorned beetle's native range includes China and Korea. Subsequent populations have been reported in New Jersey, Illinois, Ohio, and Massachusetts, though the infestations in both Illinois and New Jersey have since been eradicated. The first established population outside Asia was found in New York City in 1996. As they mature, larvae migrate into the wood, causing extensive damage. Its life cycle (from egg to emerging adult) lasts from one to three years. In trees that have been repeatedly infested, limbs or trunks often break under high winds or heavy snow, as numerous feeding tunnels weaken the tree. The introduced populations are believed to be under control. Larvae may reach 5 cm in length when fully grown, feeding for at least 3 months.Pupa - At maturity, the larvae move near the surface of the tree (under the bark) to pupate. From Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda and its Class is Insecta Genes/species: Anoplophora glabripennis This beetle is about 1.5 inches long with bluish, white … In rare instances the beetle has been found in shipments of live plants. Starry sky beetle, Asian cerambycid beetle. The discovery in Worcester in 2008 led to a 110-square mile quarantine zone and about 36,000 trees being cut down. In females the antennae are as long as the body, but they will be almost twice the body length in males. As the adults chew their way out of the tree, they push large amounts of sawdust from their exit holes. Which of these insects includes a “slave-maker” that bites the head off the resident queen? Adult beetles measure 1-1½ inches in length. Adult females have a life span of about 66 days, during which they can lay between 50 and 125 individual eggs, depending on their geographic strain, the host trees available, and exposure to pathogens in the environment. In the U.S. and Canada, known Asian longhorned beetle infestations have occurred in urban areas. When the female oviposits, it causes the sap to weep. In 1992 the Asian longhorned beetle was first detected at ports of entry on the east coasts of both the United States and Canada, but it was exterminated before it could escape into the surrounding habitats. Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) was first discovered in North America at several ports in the early 1990's. Large, robust beetle ; Glossy black with irregular splotches of white on the wings. FIGURE 1. Six legs. ... Characteristics and Breeding. The elytra is black with 20 irregular white spots. The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an invasive xylophagous beetle that poses a threat to numerous urban and forest hardwood tree species in the United States ( Nowak et al. A journey through the early detection and rapid response to the introduction of the invasive Asian longhorned beetle in Canada. Larval feeding is the primary cause of tree damage, as tunneling in the cambium disrupts vascular flow. The dramatic increase in host trees allowed the Asian longhorned beetle to become a serious pest in China. Asian longhorned beetle adults are large, 17–39 mm in length, and although females tend to be larger than males, there is considerable variation in size both within and between the sexes (Figs. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In rare instances the beetle has been found in shipments of live plants. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Asian Long-horned Beetle. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. The Asian Longhorned Beetle, Its Prevention and Control, 22 Common Insects Pests That Are Harmful to Trees, Keep Bugs out of Your Firewood and Your Home, 10 Biggest Beetle Families in North America, Habits and Traits of Beetles, Order Coleoptera, Profile on Carpenter Bees (Genus Xylocopa), B.A., Political Science, Rutgers University. Larvae, which are also white and resemble small grubs, chew their way through the vascular tissue of the tree and move into the wood. Egg - Eggs are laid singly within the host tree's bark, and hatch in 1-2 weeks.Larva - Newly hatched larvae tunnel into the vascular tissue of the tree. Asian longhorned beetle USDA This accumulated sawdust, usually around the base of the tree or piled in the crotch of branches, is another sign of the Asian longhorned beetle. When fully developed, the larva is 30–50 mm (1.2–2 inches) long and pupates at the end of the feeding tunnel. ALB was detected in the Toronto, Ontario area in 2003 and quick action lead to eradication of the pest over the following years. What makes this beetle so dangerous to our trees? Typical signs of infestation include round or slightly oval emergence holes 6 - 9 mm (0.24 - 0.35 in. Without eradication, this insect has the potential to be a significant threat to trees in the United States. Their shiny black bodies have white spots or markings, and the long antennae have alternating black and white stripes. Shiny black outer wings with around 20 white spots. Adults emerge in about 18 days.Adult - The adult beetles actively mate and lay eggs throughout the summer and fall. Eradication efforts in the United States between 1997 and 2010 cost more than $373 million. Asian longhorned beetle adult next to a penny in a person’s hand. Adults, especially males, display long antennae used to sense the sex pheromones of potential mates. The eggs produce larvae and those larvae tunnel deep under the bark and feed on living tree tissue. Adults locate host trees by using visual or chemical cues and detect mates by using both short-range and contact pheromones. Male Female Adult Female: Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Habitat: This beetle is native to China, Japan, Korea, and the Isle of Hainan and an accidental immigrant in North America.Adults are drawn to recently felled, stressed, or apparently healthy hardwood trees. In China the beetle’s native range was in the eastern portion of the country until the mid-1980s, when it was first reported in high numbers in western China and began killing significant numbers of trees. 2001).Of particular concern is the impact that A. glabripennis feeding damage may have on Acer spp. Their body is a shiny black with irregular white spots, while the antennae are banded with black and white. In an attempt to reduce the spread of the pest, citizens in many areas are urged to report infestations or sightings of the beetle and are warned not to transport firewood or other potentially contaminated wood items. The Asian longhorned beetle can develop in at least 15 tree genera, its preferred hosts being species of poplar, maple, willow, and elm. That population increase and westward movement followed the large-scale planting of poplar trees that began in the 1960s and culminated as part of China’s Three-North Shelterbelt Programme, initiated in 1978. Debbie Hadley is a science educator with 25 years of experience who has written on science topics for over a decade. They can … The base of each segment is pale blue-white, grading distally (away from the centre of the body) to black. More recently, Anoplophora glabripennis appeared in New Jersey and Toronto, Canada. All four stages of the life cycle damage the host trees. 4… Key diagnostic characteristics are the black body with white spots, black and white striped antennae, and blue feet. Most incidents of invasion go undetected for a few to many generations, and the source population and history of an invasion must often be inferred indi-rectly. Mated females chew a pit in the bark on the upper trunk or main branches of a host tree and deposit a single 6-mm- (0.2-inch-) long white egg under the bark. Professor of Entomology, Clemson University, South Carolina. The tarsi may have a faint iridescent blue color. Very long white and black striped antennae. Citrus Long-horned Beetle Asian Longhorned Beetles August is Tree Check Month, and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is urging the public (and cabin owners) to inspect trees for signs of Asian longhorned beetle (ALB). They have black-and-white antennae that are as long as their bodies. Accidental introductions, probably in wooden packing crates from China, led to infestations in New York and Chicago in the 1990's. The backside of an Asian longhorned beetle (. These look like little wounds on the tree, and you can sometimes see the chew marks on the edges. The antennae are quite striking with bands of black and gray. These unique characteristics and colorings on the Asian longhorned beetle body is what distinguish them from other species that are closely related to them. More than 110,000 trees have been removed since 1996 as part of the eradication programs in New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Ohio, and pesticides were applied on a large scale to susceptible species. The female chews away a small amount of bark and lays white, oval eggs singly within the tree. The Canadian Forest Service (CFS) has learned much about the Asian longhorned beetle under the leadership of its Great Lakes Forestry Centre(GLFC) scientists: 1. The beetle chews its way into hardwood trees to lay eggs. Adult Asian longhorned beetles are less than 5 cm long and have a shiny black outer skeleton containing white spots. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Asian longhorned beetles feed on wood of many common hardwood species: birches, common horsechestnuts, elms, hackberries, London planes, maples, mountain ashes, poplars, aspens, and willows. The pronotum has two large spines, while the elytra are shiny black and bear white or yellowish tan spots in variable patterns. The adult emerges by chewing to the surface and exiting through a 10–15-mm- (0.4–0.6-inch-) diameter hole. Kingdom - AnimaliaPhylum - ArthropodaClass - InsectaOrder - ColeopteraFamily - CerambycidaeGenus - AnoplophoraSpecies - A. glabripennis. Asian Longhorned Beetle. The Asian Longhorned Beetle belongs to the family of wood boring beetles, Cerambycidae. The Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) was found in Worcester, MA in August 2008 and in Boston in July 2010. The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) is a large, striking insect that is black with white spots, 1 to 1 ½” long, has long black and white striped antennae and bluish feet. This feeding effectively cuts off the tree's food supply and starves it to the point of death. Accidental introductions expanded the range to include the United States, Canada, and Austria, hopefully temporarily. For more information, visit www.aphis.usda.gov or www.asianlonghornedbeetle.com, or call the toll free hotline: 1-866-702-9938. In its native environment on the Korean peninsula, the Asian longhorned beetle occurs at low densities at the edge of mixed forest habitats. Egg sites – Adult female beetles chew up to 90 oval depressions, called oviposition sites or egg sites, into the bark of the host tree. They show a particular preference for maples. The Asian longhorned beetle, or ALB, is an invasive wood-boring insect that feeds on a variety of hardwoods including maple, birch, elm, ash, poplar, horse chestnut and willow, among others. Updates? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Asian longhorned beetle larvae and adults chew wood with large mandibles. The feet and legs are decorated with a slate blue pubescence. Larvae feed on the phloem tissue and wood; adults feed on bark during their mating and egg-laying period. The Asian longhorned beetle is native to China and the Korean peninsula. The Asian longhorned beetle [Anoplophora glabripennis Motschul­ sky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)], a native of eastern Asia, poses a new threat to Arkansas’ forests (Figure 1). Invasive Species - (Anoplophora glabripennis) Watch List - Prohibited in Michigan The Asian longhorned beetle can attack and kill many tree species including poplar, willow, sycamore, and horse chestnut, but its favorite host are maple trees. The legless larva creates a feeding tunnel by chewing through the cambium (layer of actively dividing cells) into sapwood and heartwood. 3. She lays a single egg beneath the bark at each site. Can have blue-ish feet. The Asian longhorned beetle can develop in at least 15 tree genera, its preferred hosts being species of poplar, maple, willow, and elm. New adults feed on twigs or leaf veins and petioles (leaf stalks) for approximately two weeks before mating. When a tree has multiple wounds with dripping sap, wood borers may be suspected. The Asian Longhorned Beetle belongs to the family of wood boring beetles, Cerambycidae. https://www.britannica.com/animal/Asian-long-horned-beetle, The Nature Conservancy - Asian Longhorned Beetle. Accumulation of coarse sawdust, also known as frass, around the base or on the branches of infested trees.this frass is created by the beetle larvae as they bore into the main tree stem and branches. These antennae are the reason for their name, Asian Longhorned Beetle. twice the body length and coloured black with white or light blue bands Adult beetles have bullet-shaped bodies from 3/4 inch to 1-1/2 inches long, shiny black with white spots and long striped antennae, 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 times the size of its body. Pupation happens within the tunnels the larvae create in the wood. The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive insect pest that has established populations in Worcester County, Massachusetts as of 2008.ALB predominantly targets red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), which are prominent in New England hardwood forests, and Norway maple (Acer platanoides), which was planted in built environments as street trees … Native to China and Korea, the beetles are approximately 1.5 Older f… The adult beetle emerges from an oval exit hole about the size of a pencil eraser. This species has now been accidentally introduced into the United States, where it was first discovered in 1996, as well as Canada, and several countries in Europe, including Austria, France, Germany, Italy and UK. ALB has not yet been found in New Hampshire. characteristics (Liebhold and Tobin 2008). The larvae feed in tunnels in the wood of the tree branches and trunks, eventually killing the tree. The Asian longhorned beetle’s life cycle mostly occurs under the host tree’s bark, so homeowners will not see the egg, larva, or pupal stage. Around an infestation an eradication zone is created, in which all infested trees are removed and all uninfested host trees are treated with a systemic insecticide. The Asian longhorned beetle may be mistaken for two species native to the U.S., the cottonwood borer and the whitespotted sawyer. Other management strategies being examined for the Asian longhorned beetle include studies to locate natural enemies that can manage the pest as a form of biological control. Identifying Characteristics: Large 1” – 1 ½” long body. ), piles of sawdust and excrement ( frass ), and oozing sap. The egg hatches in 7 to 14 days. Introduction, 1 of 3 Introduction; Completion Form, 2 of 3 Completion Form; Quiz, 3 of 3 Quiz; Credits, 3 of 3 Credits. Which beetle is also known as the tumblebug and can eat its weight in 24 hours? This beetle is in the family Cerambycidae and is originally from China and the Koreas. 1 and 2A and B, Lingafelter and Hoebeke 2002). Their shiny black bodies have white spots or markings, and the long antennae have alternating black and white stripes. Both sexes have 11-segmented antennae with an alternating white and black banding pattern. Given their low numbers and the limited availability of host trees at the forest edge, the beetles do not significantly damage trees in their native environment. Insect characteristics, 4 of 9 Insect characteristics; Color, 5 of 9 Color; Hosts, 6 of 9 Hosts; Reproduction, 7 of 9 Reproduction; Damage, 8 of 9 Damage; Similar species, 9 of 9 Similar species; Quiz, 2 of 3 Quiz. Asian longhorned beetles undergo complete metamorphosis with four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The Asian Longhorned Beetle is a recently introduced non-native insect. The long antennae each have 11 segments and are 1.5 (female) to 2 (male) times as long as the body. It is estimated that 90% of the longhorned beetle larvae mature below ground. Larval feeding is the primary cause of tree damage, as tunneling in the cambium disrupts vascular flow. The adult beetles look very similar; they are very large black and white beetles that grow up to 37mm in length. Transport of the Asian longhorned beetle to North America, Europe, and Japan occurred primarily in solid-wood packing materials (e.g., pallets and packing crates) containing developing larvae or pupae. Test what you know about bugs with this quiz. Given the inherent risks involved in introducing yet another foreign species, the natural enemies are still being researched to determine their suitability for biological control. The Asian longhorned beetle is a black insect with white speckles that grows a long antenna. Adult beetles measure 1-1½ inches in length. Harm the trees they infest at all stages of the tree branches and trunks, eventually killing the.! 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